Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Clin Interv Aging

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Clinical Interventions in Aging

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version



Purpose of the study: Assisted living (AL) residents are at risk for cognitive and functional declines that eventually reduce their ability to care for themselves, thereby triggering nursing home placement. In developing a method to slow this decline, the efficacy of Reasoning Exercises in Assisted Living (REAL), a cognitive training intervention that teaches everyday reasoning and problem-solving skills to AL residents, was tested. Design and methods: At thirteen randomized Midwestern facilities, AL residents whose Mini Mental State Examination scores ranged from 19–29 either were trained in REAL or a vitamin education attention control program or received no treatment at all. For 3 weeks, treated groups received personal training in their respective programs. Results: Scores on the Every Day Problems Test for Cognitively Challenged Elders (EPCCE) and on the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS) showed significant increases only for the REAL group. For EPCCE, change from baseline immediately postintervention was +3.10 (P


OAfund, cognitive training, assisted living, self-care, functional decline

Journal Article Version

Version of Record

Published Article/Book Citation

Clinical Interventions in Aging 9 (2014): (2014) pp. 981-996. doi:10.2147/CIA.S62095


Copyright 2014 Kristine Williams, Ruth Herman, Daniel Bontempo

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Included in

Nursing Commons