History, development, and future of the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold: a conceptual model for dementia care

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

J Am Geriatr Soc

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


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Behavioral symptoms associated with dementia are a major concern for the person who experiences them and for caregivers who supervise, support, and assist them. The knowledge and skill of formal and informal caregivers affects the quality of care they can provide and their ability to cope with the challenges of caregiving. Nurses are in an excellent position to provide training to empower caregivers with the knowledge and skills necessary to reduce and better manage behaviors. This article reviews advances in geriatric nursing theory, practice, and research based on the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold (PLST) model that are designed to promote more adaptive and functional behavior in older adults with advancing dementia. For more than 17 years, the model has been used to train caregivers in homes, adult day programs, nursing homes, and acute care hospitals and has served as the theoretical basis for in-home and institutional studies. Care planning principles and key elements of interventions that flow from the model are set forth, and outcomes from numerous research projects using the PLST model are presented.


Alzheimer's Disease -- Nursing, Caregivers -- Psychosocial Factors, Dementia -- Complications, Dementia -- Nursing, Dementia -- Psychosocial Factors, Gerontologic Nursing, Models, Theoretical, Stress, Psychological -- Prevention and Control, Aged, Caregivers -- Education, Stress, Occupational -- Prevention and Control

Published Article/Book Citation

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52:10 (2004) pp.1755-1760.

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