Targeted scan of fifteen regions for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in Filipino families

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Am J Med Genet A

Journal/Book/Conference Title

American journal of medical genetics.Part A

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


Start Page


End Page



Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a congenital anomaly with variable birth prevalence based on geographic origins, with the highest rates commonly found in Asian populations. About 70% of cases are nonsyndromic (NS), in which the affected individual has no other abnormalities. NS CL/P is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental effects and no specific genetic loci yet confirmed. Fifteen candidate regions were examined for linkage to NS CL/P. Regions were chosen based on previous suggestive linkage and/or association in human families, or suggestive animal model data. Polymorphic markers in these regions were genotyped for analysis on 36 Filipino families comprised of 126 affected and 218 unaffected individuals. An additional 70 families with 149 affecteds were used for replication of suggestive results. Parametric (LOD score) and nonparametric (SIMIBD) linkage analyses were performed as well as transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis. Five markers yielded suggestive results from the 36 families. The parametric LOD scores for the MSX1-CA and D4S1629 were >1.0 and the SIMIBD P values for D6S1029 and RFC1 are suggestive (<0.06), while the SIMIBD P value of 0.01 for TGFA was significant. Since the Msx1 mouse knockout has cleft palate and MSX1 mutations have been found in rare cases of syndromic CL/P, this locus is especially plausible for linkage. Previous studies have also found linkage of NS CL/P to 4q31 and 6p23. These regions contain several candidate genes, including AP2 at 6p23 and FGF2, BMPR1B, and MADH1 at 4q31. TGFA has both linkage and linkage disequilibrium data supporting it as a candidate gene for NS CL/P. While no region was definitively confirmed for linkage to NS CL/P, the data do support further investigation using larger sample sizes and candidate gene studies at 2p13.2, 4p16.2, 4q31, 6p23, and 16q22-24.


Chromosome Mapping/methods, Cleft Lip/genetics/pathology, Cleft Palate/genetics/pathology, Family Health, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics, Genotype, Humans, Linkage Disequilibrium, Lod Score, Male, Microsatellite Repeats, Pedigree, Philippines

Published Article/Book Citation

American journal of medical genetics.Part A, 125A:1 (2004) pp.17-22. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.20424.

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