Dermatoglyphic pattern types in subjects with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and their unaffected relatives in the Philippines

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Cleft Palate Craniofac J

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


Start Page


End Page



OBJECTIVE: To investigate dermatoglyphic patterns in 95 nonsyndromic Filipino subjects with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and 90 of their unaffected relatives. DESIGN: Retrospective study of dermatoglyphic pattern types. SETTING: Negros Occidental and Cavite in the Philippines. PARTICIPANTS: Nonsyndromic subjects with CL/P and their unaffected relatives. METHODS: Dermatoglyphic patterns were categorized as arch, ulnar loop, radial loop, whorl, or other by three independent raters. Pattern data from the subjects, the unaffected relatives, and an unaffected control population (from the literature) were compared using chi-square tests. As a measure of asymmetry, dissimilarity between pattern types on homologous fingers was quantified and compared using Student's t tests. RESULTS: The frequency of arches (p = .016) and ulnar loops (p = .04) were significantly increased, and whorls decreased in the affected group (p = .0015), compared with the unaffected group. Affected female subjects had significantly more ulnar loops and arches (p = .009 and p = .023, respectively) and fewer whorls (p < .0001) than the unaffected female subjects. There were no significant differences between affected and unaffected male subjects. Dissimilarity scores were significantly different between male and female subjects and between subjects with CL/P and unaffected relatives. Additionally, pattern type frequencies for the relatives fell in between the frequencies for the CL/P group and the controls. CONCLUSIONS: In this Filipino population, differences in frequency of dermatoglyphic pattern types and pattern dissimilarity exist between individuals with orofacial clefts and their unaffected relatives and between both groups and controls, with the major effect seen in female subjects.


Case-Control Studies, Chi-Square Distribution, Cleft Lip/genetics, Cleft Palate/genetics, Dermatoglyphics, Family, Female, Humans, Inheritance Patterns, Male, Phenotype, Philippines, Retrospective Studies, Sex Factors

Published Article/Book Citation

The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal, 42:4 (2005) pp.362-366. DOI:10.1597/04-040.1.

This document is currently not available here.