A conceptual model of factors influencing children's responses to a painful procedure when parents are distraction coaches
NLM Title Abbreviation
J Pediatr Nurs
Journal of pediatric nursing
DOI of Published Version
The purpose of this article is to present a model of factors that may influence a child's response to a painful procedure when parents are distraction coaches during the procedure. Nonpharmacological interventions, in particular, distraction, and parents as coaches for their children during procedures are discussed. A conceptual model is presented that illustrates the multiple factors and their possible relationships. A selected review of studies is provided that supports the inclusion of these factors in the model. The model and literature review focus on three major areas: characteristics of the child, characteristics of the parent, and procedural variables. The model presented is currently being tested in a large multisite study on the use of distraction during intravenous line insertion.
Attention, Child, Child Psychology, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Male, Models, Psychological, Pain/prevention & control/psychology, Parent-Child Relations, Parents/psychology
Published Article/Book Citation
Journal of pediatric nursing, 21:2 (2006) pp.88-98. DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2005.06.007.