Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Int Psychogeriatr

Journal/Book/Conference Title

International psychogeriatrics / IPA

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


Start Page


End Page



BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effects of cognitive training on self-rated health at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years post-baseline. METHODS: In the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly) randomized controlled trial, 2,802 older adults (>or=65 years) were randomly assigned to memory, reasoning, speed of processing, or no-contact control intervention groups. Complete data were available for 1,804 (64%) of the 2,802 participants at five years. A propensity score model was adjusted for attrition bias. The self-rated health question was coded using the Diehr et al. (2001) transformation (E = 95/VG = 90/G = 80/F = 30/P = 15), and analyzed with change-score regression models. RESULTS: The speed of processing (vs. no-contact control) group had statistically significant improvements (or protective effects) on changes in self-rated health at the 2, 3 and 5 year follow-ups. The 5-year improvement was 2.8 points (p = 0.03). No significant differences were observed in the memory or reasoning groups at any time. CONCLUSION: The speed of processing intervention significantly protected self-rated health in ACTIVE, with the average benefit equivalent to half the difference between excellent vs. very good health.


Activities of Daily Living/psychology, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging/psychology, Automobile Driving/psychology/statistics & numerical data, Cognition, Cognitive Therapy/methods, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Geriatric Assessment/statistics & numerical data, Humans, Intervention Studies, Male, Memory, Motor Skills, Quality of Life/psychology, Reaction Time, Regression Analysis, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome

Journal Article Version

Version of Record

Published Article/Book Citation

International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 22:3 (2010) pp.470-478.


Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association, 2009. Posted by permission.

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