The effect of speed-of-processing training on depressive symptoms in ACTIVE

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The journals of gerontology.Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


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End Page



OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of three cognitive training interventions on depressive symptoms at 1 and 5 years. METHODS: Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly is a multisite randomized controlled trial (age >or= 65 years), with four groups (memory, reasoning, speed-of-processing, and no-contact control). Complete data were available for 2,014 (72%) and 1,516 (54%) of 2,802 participants at 1 and 5 years. Separate propensity score models adjusted for potential attrition bias. Clinically important increases in depressive symptoms were defined as: (a) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)-12 score increases >or=0.5 SD and (b) CES-D-12 score increases >or=1.0 SD. Multivariable logistic regression was used. RESULTS: The speed-of-processing group (vs the no-contact control group) was 30% less likely to experience clinically important increases in depressive symptoms at 1-year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.700, p = .012) and 5-year (AOR = 0.698, p = .023) posttraining for the >or=0.5 SD threshold. Similar results (AOR = .669 with p = .039 at 1 year; AOR = 0.651 with p = .059 at 5 years) were obtained for the >or=1.0 SD threshold. No differences were observed among the control, memory, or reasoning groups at either time period or at either threshold. CONCLUSION: The speed-of-processing intervention reduced the risk of clinically important increases in depressive symptoms at 1- and 5-years postbaseline.


Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging/physiology, Cognitive Therapy/methods, Depression/diagnosis/therapy, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Geriatric Assessment, Humans, Intervention Studies, Logistic Models, Male, Memory, Mental Processes/physiology, Multivariate Analysis, Problem Solving, Reaction Time, Reference Values, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Treatment Outcome

Published Article/Book Citation

The journals of gerontology.Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 64:4 (2009) pp.468-472. DOI:doi: 10.1093/gerona/gln044.

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