Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

BMC Psychol

Journal/Book/Conference Title

BMC Psychology

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


Start Page


Total Pages



BACKGROUND: Listen Protect Connect (LPC), a school-based program of Psychological First Aid delivered by non-mental health professionals, is intended to support trauma-exposed children. Our objective was to implement LPC in a school setting and assess the effectiveness of LPC on improving psychosocial outcomes associated with trauma.

METHODS: A pilot quasi-experiment was conducted with middle school children self-identified or referred to the school nurse as potentially exposed to stressful life experiences. LPC was provided to students by the school nurse, and questionnaires were administered at baseline, 2-, 4- and 8-weeks to assess life stressors, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, social support, and school connectedness. A total of 71 measurements were collected from 20 children in all. Although a small sample size, multiple measurements allowed for multivariable mixed effects models to analyze changes in the repeated outcomes over time.

RESULTS: Students who received the intervention had reduced depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms from baseline throughout follow-up period. Total social support also increased significantly from baseline through 8-weeks, and school connectedness increased up to 4-weeks post-intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential of LPC as a school-based intervention of Psychological First Aid. Future randomized trials of LPC are needed, however.


OAfund, Post-traumatic stress disorders, Intervention studies, Schools, Child

Journal Article Version

Version of Record

Published Article/Book Citation

BMC Psychology 2013, 1:26 (27 November 2013)


© 2013 Ramirez et al.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.