Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Chem Cent J

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Chemistry Central Journal

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


Total Pages



Background: Simple glycoside surfactants represent a class of chemicals that are produced from renewable raw materials. They are considered to be environmentally safe and, therefore, are increasingly used as pharmaceuticals, detergents, and personal care products. Although they display low to moderate toxicity in cells in culture, the underlying mechanisms of surfactant-mediated cytotoxicity are poorly investigated.

Results: We synthesized a series of triazole-linked (fluoro)alkyl β-glucopyranosides using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne reaction, one of many popular “click” reactions that enable efficient preparation of structurally diverse compounds, and investigate the toxicity of this novel class of surfactant in the Jurkat cell line. Similar to other carbohydrate surfactants, the cytotoxicity of the triazole-linked alkyl β-glucopyranosides was low, with IC50 values decreasing from 1198 to 24 μM as the hydrophobic tail length increased from 8 to 16 carbons. The two alkyl β-glucopyranosides with the longest hydrophobic tails caused apoptosis by mechanisms involving mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-3 activation.

Conclusions: Triazole-linked, glucose-based surfactants 4a-g and other carbohydrate surfactants may cause apoptosis, and not necrosis, at low micromolar concentrations via induction of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade; however, additional studies are needed to fully explore the molecular mechanisms of their toxicity.



Journal Article Version

Version of Record

Published Article/Book Citation

Chemistry Central Journal 9:3 (2015) 12 p., doi:10.1186/s13065-014-0072-1


Copyright © 2015, Edward Davis Oldham, Larissa M. Nunes, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Stephen E. Rankin, Barbara L. Knutson, Renato J. Aguilera, Hans-Joachim Lehmler.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License