US Patent 4,711,597
United States Patent and Trademark Office
University of Iowa Research Foundation (Iowa City, IA, US)
A flow-training structure for use in rivers and streams to minimize bank erosion, and to control bed degradation and aggradation. The structure consists of single vanes or arrays of vanes of a particular double-curved design. The vanes are installed in the river bed in designed arrays to produce changes in the local directions of the near-bed velocity, without changing the sediment-transport or flow-conveyance capacities of the channel.
Odgaard, Jacob A. and Kennedy, John F. Vanes for bank protection and sediment control in rivers. US Patent 4,711,597 filed July 18, 1986 and issued December 08, 1987. https://ir.uiowa.edu/patents/55