US Patent 8,503,057
United States Patent and Trademark Office
University of Iowa Research Foundation (Iowa City, IA, US)
A device comprising: two mutually immiscible conductive liquids arranged to form an interface therebetween; a plurality of nanoparticles localised at the said interface, the said nanoparticles each having a first region formed of a semiconductor having a first bandgap, the first region being surrounded by a second region having a second bandgap, the second bandgap being larger than the first bandgap; and means for applying an electric field to the said nanoparticles and thus, through the Stark effect, altering the optical absorption or emission characteristics of the nanoparticles.
Flatte, Michael Edward; Kornyshev, Alexei; and Urbakh, Michael Electrically-tunable optical devices. US Patent 8,503,057 filed April 28, 2009 and issued August 06, 2013. https://ir.uiowa.edu/patents/600