Peer Reviewed



Objective: To study the effect of music on pain perception in women scheduled for elective cesarean section (CS)

Search Strategy: We used the following keywords (“music” or “music therapy” and any of the following: cesarean section OR cesarean delivery OR CS OR cesarean OR Caesarean OR "post-op*)

Selection Criteria: We included all studies satisfying the following criteria: (1) Population: pregnant women scheduled for cesarean section. (2) Intervention: the addition of any type of music to routine care compared with routine care alone. (3) Study design: randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We excluded the following: (1) non-randomized trials, (2) in vitro and animal studies, (3) studies in languages other than English, and (4) studies whose data were unreliable for extraction and analysis.

Data Collection and Analysis: Data extraction was independently performed using a standardized form. In case of discrepancies, a consensus was reached after the involvement of the senior investigator. Then, data were extracted from assessed articles and entered RevMan software for meta-analysis.

Main Results: Pooled data significantly favored the music group over the non-music one in terms of pain and anxiety scores (p<0.001). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ significantly between both groups.

Conclusion: Music can be used during, before, and after cesarean section to reduce associated pain and anxiety.


Music, pain, cesarean section, anxiety, delivery

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Financial Disclosure

"The authors report no conflict of interest."

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.