Document Type

Conference Paper

Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

53rd Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association

Conference Location

San Diego, CA

DOI of Published Version


Total Pages

36 pages


We combine statistical analyses of data from all 83 members of the Russian Federation with a detailed study of St. Petersburg city. We reach four conclusions: 1) a region’s level of international activ-ity, both its economic connectedness (foreign investment, imports and exports) and its active paradiplo-macy, can be well predicted by a few demographic and economic characteristics. 2) Regions with higher economic connectedness are also more active in signing foreign accords, but our cross-sectional analysis shows no causal relationship. While every regional leadership is likely to understand the importance of paradiplomacy, they vary primarily in how extensively they are capable of pursuing it. 3) Although several analysts of paradiplomacy in Russia argue that the non-ethnically Russian regions should have higher levels, we find that they are less active internationally. 4) Location matters for the direction of regional connections and paradiplomacy.


Copyright © 2012 William M Reisinger and Hyemin Yoo