Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

American Political Science Review

DOI of Published Version



Modernization theory suggests that in the post-World War II period increased education promoted public support for democratic principles and an individual opportunities society in the former Soviet Union. Finifter and Mickiewicz (1992), however, based on a 1989 survey in the Soviet Union, found that the less well educated were more supportive of individual locus of control than were the better educated. Examining survey data collected in the former USSR during 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1995, we find consistent reconfirmation of the modernization theory, despite a major decline in support for an opportunities society that occurs between 1992 and 1995. This recent increase in preference for socialism is explained by rising nationalism, growing nostalgia for communists, and disillusionment with certain aspects of the market economy, particularly the perceived growth of social inequality.

Journal Article Version

Version of Record

Published Article/Book Citation

American Political Science Review, 90:1 (1996) pp. 153-166.


Copyright © 1996 American Political Science Association. Used by permission.