Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

J Abnorm Psychol

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Abnormal Psychology

DOI of Published Version


Total Pages

54 pages


The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) groups disorders into diagnostic classes on the basis of the subjective criterion of "shared phenomenological features." There are now sufficient data to eliminate this rational system and replace it with an empirically based structure that reflects the actual similarities among disorders. The existing structural evidence establishes that the mood and anxiety disorders should be collapsed together into an overarching class of emotional disorders, which can be decomposed into 3 subclasses: the bipolar disorders (bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia), the distress disorders (major depression, dysthymic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder), and the fear disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia). The optimal placement of other syndromes (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) needs to be clarified in future research.


Anxiety Disorders, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Humans, Mood Disorders, Reproducibility of Results


I thank Gavin Andrews, Michael Chmielewski, Lee Anna Clark, Cynthia Cutshall, Anthony Dale, Ron de Graaf, Bradley N. Doebbeling, Wakiza Gamez, Roman Kotov, Michael O'Hara, Jennifer Gringer Richards, Leonard J. Simms, Tim Slade, Wilma Vollebergh, and Kevin D. Wu for their help in the preparation of this manuscript. This research was supported by NIMH Grant # 1-R01-MH068472-1 to David Watson, and by Department of Defense Grant DAMD17-97-1 to Bradley N. Doebbeling.

Journal Article Version

Accepted Manuscript

Published Article/Book Citation

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114:4 (2005) pp. 522-536. DOI: PMID: 16351375


Copyright © American Psychological Association, 2005. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. Posted by permission.

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